Blood Pressure Medications

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What treatment methods are available for high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is a widespread disease in Germany. More than 35 million German citizens, or around 45%, are currently affected by high blood pressure. The incidence of hypertension in Germany has remained almost the same since 1998. Almost one in three adults is affected, or around 20 million 18 to 79-year-olds. A distinction can be made between two forms of high blood pressure. Primary or essential hypertension, which affects 90% of patients and is not caused by other diseases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by a pre-existing condition.

Can high blood pressure be treated?

A large number of studies and medical examinations show that a genetic predisposition and, in particular, an unhealthy lifestyle, stress and smoking favor the development of high blood pressure. However, these risk factors can usually be offset by taking responsibility for your own health and a combination therapy based on medication and a healthy lifestyle.

Diagnosis of high blood pressure, what now?

So if your doctor has diagnosed you with "arterial hypertension", as high blood pressure is medically known, you are not alone with this diagnosis. It is important to take the diagnosis seriously and to consult your doctor about treatment options and different therapies. With a targeted, individualized and holistic approach to therapy, blood pressure can often be well controlled and is treatable. Patients have two options for treating essential hypertension: Lifestyle changes and taking antihypertensive medication. For most patients, it is necessary to combine both methods.

General measures

Depending on which form of high blood pressure you have, your doctor will explain the different treatment and therapy methods to you and recommend the right medication for you, as not every blood pressure medication is suitable for every patient and the active ingredients and modes of action often differ greatly from one another. Doctors often recommend that people who suffer from a mild form of hypertension, i.e. a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg, can often normalize their high blood pressure simply by making appropriate lifestyle changes. However, if this is not successful, the doctor will prescribe antihypertensive medication.

The first measures to regulate blood pressure are:

Drug therapy

If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, i.e. a value of at least 140/90 mmHg, your doctor will advise you to take medication. The aim is to successfully lower your blood pressure in the long term in order to ultimately achieve the ideal value of < 130/80 mmHg and prevent the development of secondary diseases. In order to optimally adjust your medication, it is important to inform your doctor not only about existing concomitant symptoms, but also about possible pre-existing conditions. In this way, a diagnosis and the start of drug treatment can be made more quickly. Before visiting your doctor, make a note of any new symptoms that may be associated with taking the tablets. It is particularly important in the early stages to see whether the medication is working and lowering the blood pressure with as few side effects as possible.

Various medications are used in the treatment of high blood pressure. We would like to briefly introduce you to the most important ones.

ACE inhibitors and AT-1 receptor antagonists

ACE inhibitors (ACE for angiotensin-converting enzyme) are used to treat high blood pressure. They inhibit a certain enzyme, which relaxes the heart muscles and causes the blood vessels to dilate. The blood pressure drops. They are also frequently used for chronic heart failure, myocarditis, after a heart attack or as part of a combination therapy.

Active ingredients in ACE inhibitors

Ramipril, Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril

Diuretics (dehydrating, diuretic agents)

Diuretics or "water tablets" increase the productivity of the kidneys and thus increase the excretion of common salt and minerals via the urine. In a combination therapy with other antihypertensive drugs, blood pressure can thus be lowered. The reduced amount of fluid in the body also reduces the blood volume and the associated pressure. Diuretics work in two ways and not only lower the pressure, but also the responsiveness of vasoconstrictor receptors.

Active ingredients in diuretics

Xipamide, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), chlorthalidone, xipamide, indapamide

Beta blockers

In our body, stress hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline affect the frequency of our pulse and also our blood pressure. Beta-blockers can prevent this increase by blocking the body's own beta-receptors. Furthermore, beta-blockers can be divided into beta1-selective beta-blockers and non-selective beta-blockers, which act on beta1 and beta2 receptors, depending on their active ingredient.

Active ingredients in beta-blockers

Propanolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol.

Calcium antagonists or calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers are another medication used to treat high blood pressure. By preventing calcium from entering the cell, the heart muscle relaxes and blood pressure falls. As a blood pressure medication, they play a decisive role in muscle contraction and blood vessels. Calcium channels are of great importance for heart health and the regulation of blood pressure. By relaxing the muscles, blood pressure can also be reduced.

Active ingredients in calcium channel blockers

Amlodipine, diltiazem, nitrendipine, verapamil

AT1 antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers, sartans)

AT1 antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (sartans or AT1 blockers), are also used in blood pressure medication. This class of medication can be regarded as an extended class of ACE inhibitors. They reduce the risk of serious kidney disease, heart attack or stroke and are prescribed quite frequently. AT1 antagonists are also used for the treatment of heart failure and diabetic nephropathy. Their effectiveness is due to the blocking of the hormone angiotensin II, which has vasoconstrictive properties and therefore causes blood pressure to rise.

Active ingredient in AT1 antagonists


Alternative measures

In addition to a drug treatment approach, we also recommend that you consider natural blood pressure reducers and alternative measures before regulating your hypertension. A well-thought-out and individually tailored exercise and nutrition program can make a significant contribution to lowering and regulating your blood pressure in the long term. It is therefore worth changing your lifestyle permanently and taking your health into your own hands. Here we present the most important measures.


Sport and physical activity can make an important contribution to your health. Regardless of whether you suffer from high blood pressure or not. Various scientific studies show that sport can not only prevent the development of high blood pressure, but also lower blood pressure that has already been diagnosed through physical exercise. Talk to your doctor before you start exercising and make sure that you do not overstress your body at the beginning.


Obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure often occur together. If you are carrying around a few extra kilos and also suffer from high blood pressure, we recommend that you change your diet slowly but purposefully and reduce not only your body weight but also the associated high blood pressure. If you combine a healthy and balanced lifestyle with exercise, you will quickly see health benefits and an increase in your enjoyment of life.

Reduce stress

Constant physical and emotional stress can damage the heart in the long term. Psychological stress and personal and professional tensions that persist over a long period of time and remain unresolved place a heavy burden on the cardiovascular system and can lead to cardiac insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmia and, in the worst case, even a heart attack. We therefore recommend that you take adequate breaks and consider relaxation methods such as yoga, meditation or autogenic training.


Smoking is very harmful to the entire organism, this knowledge is well known. However, nicotine addiction poses a particularly high risk for people with high blood pressure. Firstly, every puff of a cigarette immediately raises smokers' blood pressure by up to 30 mmHg for several minutes. Secondly, smoking increases the risk of vascular damage. As high blood pressure already damages your blood vessels, nicotine consumption further exacerbates the situation - and significantly increases the risk of all secondary diseases caused by high blood pressure. For this reason, and especially for the sake of your health, we advise you to stop smoking.

Goals of blood pressure treatment

Living with high blood pressure can often be stressful at the beginning of treatment. However, the success of any treatment approach depends on various factors and the individual patient's situation. The primary aim of hypertension treatment is, of course, to permanently lower blood pressure to a healthy level and to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and avoid their development. A combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological measures usually achieves very satisfactory results, allowing patients to live as normal and unrestricted a life as possible. Especially at the beginning of drug treatment, therapy can be stressful and it takes several months until patients are optimally adjusted to the medication. In the event of side effects or discomfort, always contact your doctor and keep him informed about your state of health and any changes.

Correct blood pressure measurement needs to be learned

Another crucial aspect of high blood pressure therapy is the regular and correct measurement of blood pressure. It is particularly important at the start of therapy to know your own values and possibly to keep a blood pressure diary to document changes and daily values in the long term. However, before you measure your blood pressure, we recommend that you discuss the correct procedure with your doctor or pharmacist and familiarize yourself with how the device works. It is also important to know that blood pressure is subject to daily fluctuations and is therefore not always the same. You should therefore always measure your blood pressure at the same time and under the same conditions if possible. Regular monitoring will give you and your doctor valuable insights into your cardiovascular health and, if necessary, allow you to adjust your therapy accordingly.



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